Я разберусь с «С-400» с «Патриотом». Эти зенитные орудия в настоящее время являются лучшими в мире, поэтому возиться с остальными просто бессмысленно.
Четкое сравнение возможностей российского зенитно-ракетного комплекса С-400 и его американского конкурента Патриота.
Российский С-400 САМ: обнаружение цели — 600 км, гарантированное уничтожение — 400 км. Обнаружение и поражение в пределах 360 градусов.
All the missiles used in the S-400 have a «cold start». They are thrown out of the launch canister by a powder catapult, at an altitude of 30 meters the gas rudders turn the rocket toward the target, after which the march engine starts. This increases the flight range and reduces the near boundary of the affected area. And thanks to a vertical launch, the SAM can fire targets in any direction without turning the launcher. By the way, about the borders: the lower limit of the «Patriot» SAM system is 60 meters. The American complex flying below the target misses. The S-400 knocks objects at a height of five meters above the ground. But this is in conditions of an ideal radio horizon. Let’s assume in the ocean. On land to realize the defeat of the target at an altitude of 5 meters is unrealistic. Nevertheless, the S-400 has this capability.
American Patriot missile system: detection of the target — 180 km, confident defeat — 96 km. Detection and defeat occur in the segment of 120 degrees, i.e. to protect the object from all angles you need at least 3 launchers.
Especially clearly visible differences in the capabilities of Russian and American air defense are visible in the picture.
Both complexes are designed to solve two main tasks. First, to protect from an attack from the air important objects: air defense radars, missile batteries, headquarters, industrial areas. Second, intercept and destroy the warheads of ballistic missiles. Both «Patriot» and S-400 are designed to work in conditions of active radioelectronic countermeasures — their radar stations are able to intensively change the operating frequency, being built up from interference.
The American and Russian SAMs are equipped with radars with phased active grating (FAR) — it allows a fixed antenna to form the required number of mobile radio beams. In addition, the complex includes a control center and anti-aircraft missile launchers. SAMs are mobile and capable of operating both autonomously and receiving information from outside: from air defense and missile defense control posts, satellites and long-range radar detection aircraft. At the same time, any S-400 complex can not only fire on foreign commands, but also manage the network of SAM systems of various types: S-400, S-300, Pantsir-C1, Tor-M1, — combining dozens of launchers with hundreds missiles.
«Patriot» works as follows. The detection radar with a viewing angle of 90 degrees is set in the direction of the likely appearance of airborne objects. Multifunctional radar searches for, detects and identifies targets, calculates their coordinates. As dangerous targets approach the interception point, their interception points are determined, and information on the order of the firing appears on the indicator. When the target approaches the target, the launcher rotates toward the target and the rocket starts.
After the launch, the interceptor missile MIM-104 is taken for escorted by the radar of guidance. In those moments when the radar beam is aimed at the rocket, control commands are transmitted to it. At the end of the trajectory, the control mode changes. The guidance radar highlights the target, the missile homing head catches the reflected signal and transmits data to the ground to generate control commands.
The MIM-104 combat fragment is fragmentation-explosive, weighing 90 kilograms. According to the tactical and technical characteristics, the Patriot missile system is capable of intercepting destroy targets flying at a speed of up to 2500 kilometers per hour, at distances up to 100 kilometers (ballistic — up to 25 kilometers) and at altitudes up to 25 kilometers (ballistic — up to 11 kilometers). The reaction time of the complex is 15 seconds. The SAM can simultaneously fire up to 8 targets, launching missiles at intervals of 3 seconds.
Declared by the manufacturer, the probability of intercepting targets is: the aircraft is 0.8-0.9, the operational-tactical missile is 0.4-0.6. Battle baptism «Patriots» took during the war in the Persian Gulf. In early 1991, coalition aviation struck at the territory of Iraq. Saddam Hussein’s army responded with the launch of Abbas and Hussein ballistic missiles at the Saudi city of Dhahran, near which the US military base was located. Iraqi missiles are variants of the Soviet R-11, developed by Sergei Korolev, which do not have the means of electronic warfare.
The Americans foresaw such a reaction and placed several «Patriot» batteries in Saudi Arabia and Israel. The launches of Iraqi missiles were marked by American satellites, the data was transmitted by AWACS aircraft. The radars of the ZRK were assisted by the NATO over-the-horizon radar in Turkey.
Despite the ideal conditions for interception: the lack of mass launch, false targets and radio interference, — the effectiveness of the «Patriots» was low. Out of 91 Iraqi rockets, 45 were shot down at the expense of 158 anti-aircraft missiles. In most cases, the shell of the Iraqi missile was damaged, and not the destruction of the warhead, which does not reduce the damage when firing at squares. As a result, 28 servicemen were killed at the American base near Dakhran.
Combat application also revealed other shortcomings of the American SAM: sensitivity of generators to sand blocking, and radar equipment to instability of power supply. There were unauthorized launches. The main disadvantage of «Patriot» was the short range and the height of the interception of the target — less than 20 and 7 kilometers from the object being covered, respectively. In other words, the «umbrella», which the Patriot missile defense system spreads over its zone of responsibility, turned out to be scanty.
The dome covered by the wards of S-400 objects is much more spacious — 400 kilometers along the radius and height. Outwardly, the SAM resembles its predecessor S-300 — it was done specifically so that the enemy could not understand what kind of system he faced. But the capabilities of the S-400 cover the performance of any other air defense system in the world. No wonder he was called «Triumph».
The eyes of the SAM are a noise-protected radar with a two-way radar. He discovers all kinds of flying objects in nature — from invisible aircraft to hypersonic missiles — at a range of 600 kilometers. The radar classifies targets, separates them from others, determines the degree of danger of each of the latter and transfers their coordinates to the point of combat control. Meanwhile, a radar illumination with a range of 400 kilometers takes potential targets for escort.
A unique feature of «Triumph» is that additional modules are connected to it to increase effective performance both in general and for certain types of purposes. Recently, five all-high-altitude detectors, capable of simultaneously recognizing up to 100 targets of various classes, were delivered to the S-400 equipped submarine regiments of the aerospace defense. To intercept aircraft and missiles made by stealth technologies, special radars «Gamma», «Orion», «Opponent» are designed to filter out false targets. There are modules for the formation of closed communication channels between the SAM at a distance of up to 90 kilometers, electronic protection of complexes and jamming, radar targeting and a host of other useful devices.
When the target is identified and captured, it remains to launch one of the five types of missiles that the S-400 is equipped with. The missiles are designed to hit different targets at different altitudes, which allows the Triumph to create a echeloned air defense. The 9M96E, for example, is capable of operating outside the field of sight of ground-based guidance stations. This property is provided by a fundamentally new homing head, developed, like the entire S-400, in the Almaz Central Design Bureau. The missile can be guided to the target and by commands from the ground, and independently, without requiring illumination of the tracking radar. For all types of missiles it is possible to install controlled combat units that have both stopping (destruction of the target design) and neutralizing (disabling the warhead) effect. The probability of the defeat of such a missile of ballistic warheads and percussion drone increases 1.5-2 times.
The manufacturer’s high performance characteristics were confirmed during the exercises and tests. During the shooting at the Kapustin Yar test range, the S-400 hit a target moving at a speed of 2800 meters per second. The second goal, the ballistic was launched at a great height from a long distance.
— It was a small-sized target of the «Boar» type.
To find her is like finding a pencil in a haystack. But we at an altitude of 16 kilometers, it was destroyed, — said Colonel-General Yuri Soloviev.